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This is not shop like other internet shops. I am not an electronic distributor. I am audio-hobbyst. I am DIY'er only. All devices I designed and made for myself. But if you are interested any of them, especially any pcb of used in these devices, you can buy them in my shop. I can made any pcb for your special order. Here is a list of pcb I designed for my devices:

'Regulators for High- Performance Audio' Part 1, Part 2A, Part 2B, Part 2C and Part 3 The Walt Jung's article is highly recommended for those who think about Hi-End pramplifiers. Author explained all aspects of designing of regulators for high performance audio. If you seriously think about power supply for preamp, DAC or CD player - don't omit it!

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Sollicitudin et, arcu. Vivamus viverra. Nullam turpis. Vestibulum sed etiam. Lorem ipsum sit amet dolore. Nulla facilisi. Sed tortor. Nullam turpis. Vestibulum sed etiam. Lorem ipsum sit amet dolore. Nulla facilisi. Sed tortor. System designers often find themselves battling power supply hum, noise, transients, and various perturbations wreaking havoc with low noise amplifiers, oscillators, and other sensitive devices. Many voltage regulators have excessive levels of output noise including voltage spikes from switching circuits and high flicker noise levels from unfiltered references. Ordinary three-terminal regulators will have several hundred nanovolts per root-hertz of white noise and some reference devices exceed one microvolt per root-hertz. DC to DC converters and switching regulators may have switching products ranging into the millivolt range covering a wide frequency spectrum. And many systems have offending devices that "dirty up" otherwise clean supply rails. The traditional approach to reducing such noise products to acceptable levels could be called the "brute force" approach - a large-value inductor combined with a capacitor or a clean-up regulator inserted between the noisy regulator and load. In either case, the clean-up circuit is handling the entire load current in order to "get at" the noise. The approach described in this paper uses a bit of finesse to remove the undesired noise without directly handling the supply's high current.

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The Preamplifier is a free, lightweight, tableless, W3C-compliant website design by NodeThirtyThree Design. You can't sell it (or derivative works based on it), but you're free to use it, dissect it, and manipulate it to your heart's content. If you want to use it in any other manner, drop us a line and we'll talk about it.

We hope you find this design useful for ... well, something. You can find more of our free work (when released) at the same place you found this design, or some of our commercial work on 4Templates.com, a commercial website template site.

Finesse Voltage Regulator Noise!

System designers often find themselves battling power supply hum, noise, transients, and various perturbations wreaking havoc with low noise amplifiers, oscillators, and other sensitive devices. Many voltage regulators have excessive levels of output noise including voltage spikes from switching circuits and high flicker noise levels from unfiltered references. Ordinary three-terminal regulators will have several hundred nanovolts per root-hertz of white noise and some reference devices exceed one microvolt per root-hertz. DC to DC converters and switching regulators may have switching products ranging into the millivolt range covering a wide frequency spectrum. And many systems have offending devices that "dirty up" otherwise clean supply rails. The traditional approach to reducing such noise products to acceptable levels could be called the "brute force" approach - a large-value inductor combined with a capacitor or a clean-up regulator inserted between the noisy regulator and load. In either case, the clean-up circuit is handling the entire load current in order to "get at" the noise. The approach described in this paper uses a bit of finesse to remove the undesired noise without directly handling the supply's high current. The key to understanding the "finesse" approach is to realize that the noise voltage is many orders of magnitude below the regulated voltage, even when integrated over a fairly wide bandwidth. For example, a 10 volt regulator might exhibit 10 uV of noise in a 10 kHz bandwidth - six orders of magnitude below 10 volts. Naturally, the noise current that flows in a resistive load due to this noise voltage is also six orders of magnitude below the DC. By adding a tiny resistor, R, in series with the output of the regulator and assuming that a circuit somehow manages to reduce the noise voltage at the load to zero, the noise current from the regulator may be calculated as Vn/R. If the resistor is 1 ohm then, in this example, the noise current will be 10uV/1ohm = 10uA - a very tiny current! If a current-sink can be designed to sink this amount of AC noise current to ground at the load, no noise current will flow in the load. By amplifying the noise with an inverting transconductance amplifier with the right amount of gain, the required current sink may be realized. The required transconductance is simply -1/R where R is the tiny series resistor.

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